Mexican-American War

This conflict, fought between the United States of America and the United Mexican States from April 25, 1846, to February 2, 1848, resulted in Mexico ceding to the Americans the area that became the present-day states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California in return for $15 million and assurances of the rights of Mexican citizens remaining in the ceded territories. The history of the conflict, discussed in this entry, falls in seven segments: (1) the background, (2) military capabilities, (3) the northern and western battles, (4) the battles in central Mexico, (5) the negotiations, (6) lessons learned, and (7) historical interpretations.


In 1821, a newly independent Mexico inherited the boundaries set in the 1819 Adam-Onis Treaty signed by the United States and Spain. However, ...

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