In 1947, Pakistan and India as independent nations came into existence. After independence, India followed a sort of state socialism. From the 1990s, the globalization policy of the Narasimha Rao government and successor regimes has not been able to totally convert the state-directed mixed economy into a full-fledged market economy. India’s population (1.2 billion) is next only to China’s. India is industrializing rapidly; still, 70% of the population remains employed in the agricultural sector. In 2012, the projected growth rate was 7%. This entry describes the foreign policy of India and discusses India’s military forces, alliances, and territorial disputes and wars with Pakistan.

Foreign Policy

Due to Jawaharlal Nehru’s (India’s first prime minister, 1947–1962) policy of “nonalignment,” India refused to align itself with any extraregional powers. However, ...

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