The USA PATRIOT Act was signed into law on October 26, 2001, after the shock of the 9/11 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center. The title of the law stands for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, although it is typically referred to as the Patriot Act. Sunset provisions in the original law called for the expiration of many of the act’s features at the end of 2005. Congress has since reauthorized the Patriot Act twice, in 2006 and 2011.

The law is divided into 10 titles. Title I (titled “Enhancing Domestic Security Against Terrorism”) expanded the authority of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in regard to terrorism investigations. Title II (“Enhanced ...

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