Researchers have long been interested in the effects of media on behavioral outcomes. Although some forms of media may be educational or entertaining, other forms—especially ones containing violent content—have been shown to be risk factors for increased aggression. Risk factors are considered to be stimuli that have the potential to increase aggressive behavior following exposure to them. This entry reviews evidence suggesting that the effects of some forms of media (violent movies, violent games, and violent song lyrics) on subsequent aggression accumulate across time and can be elicited following acute (short-term) exposure.

Violence in Movies

The first movie to include a depiction of violence was The Great Train Robbery, a 1903 black-and-white movie lasting 12 minutes that ended with the main character, Justus Barnes, pointing a pistol ...

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