Although great advances were made in the 20th century in scientific theory and research, many theories and much research are still based upon a simple approach to communication grounded in a basic transmission model. While there are numerous variations, many theories that inform practice still engage a source, message, channel, and receiver metamodel to frame their approach to communication. Communication complex (CC), conceived by John and Susan Parrish-Sprowl, draws on the theory and research derived from three conceptually related efforts to move thinking and practice beyond this simple model. Each takes a more systemic and dynamic approach to the understanding of what communication is and how it works. CC combines the thinking of pragmatics of human communication as explicated by Paul Watzlawick, Janet Beavin, and ...

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