Warning labels on cigarette packages have been used around the world to communicate the health and social risks associated with smoking. In many countries, the traditional text-only warning labels on cigarette packages have now been replaced by graphic warning labels that depict smoking risks vividly through images. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration's requirement that all cigarette packages display graphic warning labels was blocked by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company et al. v. Food & Drug Administration et al (2012); the ruling cited lack of evidence showing the effectiveness of graphic labels. Various studies have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of different types of graphic warning labels, often in ...

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