Located in the east part of sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda is bordered to the north by South Sudan, to the east by Kenya, to the west by Democratic Republic of Congo, and to the south by Tanzania and Rwanda. The population of over 32 million is diverse, with more than 30 different indigenous languages spoken. Once a British colony, Uganda gained independence in 1962. Uganda is reported to have had one of the best health care systems in Africa during the 1960s, but civil unrest following a military coup led to economic declines in the 1970s and 1980s that adversely affected the once primarily government-funded health care system. During this time, medical and drug supplies became scarce, immunization programs failed, and medical professionals left the country.

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