A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an impairment in brain functioning that results from a head injury such as a bump, a shake, a rotation, or a penetrating injury. Falls, motor vehicle accidents, and assaults are the major causes of TBIs. Infants and toddlers, adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19, and adults over the age of 65 have the highest risk of TBI. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that over 50,000 people in the United States die as a result of TBI each year.

TBIs are classified as either closed head injuries or penetrating head injuries. In a closed head injury, the skull is intact with no penetration of the skull; in a penetrating head injury, the integrity of ...

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