Resilience frameworks became influential in the late decades of the 20th century as an alternative to prevailing disease models, which focused on diagnosing and treating the infirmities and psychopathologies of individuals and communities. The need for a revised paradigm was grounded in data showing that certain persons, subpopulations, and even whole communities seem to adapt, even thrive, in the face of illness, challenging socioeconomic conditions or crisis. In the 21st century, research attention has increasingly focused on sources of resilience and their effects on health and well-being.

Numerous definitions of resilience have been proposed, but one common element is a capacity to respond to stressors in ways that are adaptive. Resilient persons and systems recover and regain equilibrium after exposure to disruptive forces or adverse events. ...

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