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The term framing refers to any attempt to highlight or emphasize certain parts of a message, while downplaying or minimizing others—with the underlying assumption that the framing of a message can meaningfully impact audiences. Classic illustrations of framing research often point to the news media as an example, believing that, through the selection of what information to broadcast, what information to highlight or omit, and what information to elaborate on, the news media establish the frame of public knowledge and discourse. Similar framing techniques are utilized in the communication of health messages, with antismoking advertisements serving as a prime example. If the goal of an advertisement is to convince smokers not to smoke, the message could emphasize the benefits of quitting (i.e., “Quitting now ...

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