Emotional appeal has been one of the most popular message design strategies in health-risk communication. One of the underlying principles that guides such an approach stems from research on cognitive appraisal of emotions in psychology. The concept of cognitive appraisal of emotions was first introduced by Magda Arnold, a pioneering figure in contemporary emotion research. She proposed that individuals cognitively appraise or evaluate the situations they face in the environment and that emotions arise as a result of such cognitions. Arnold's seminal work on cognitive approach to emotions served as a foundation for later appraisal theories, including the one developed by Richard Lazarus, which became one of the most influential theories in emotion research.

In line with Arnold's argument, Lazarus assumes that emotions result from cognitive ...

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