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The term critical theory (CT) was coined by Max Horkheimer (1895–1973) in 1937 to describe a politically committed response—grounded in the German philosophical tradition of Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel, and Karl Marx—to the problems of modernity and, in particular, to the catastrophic events and social changes of the first half of the 20th century. CT aims to achieve the emancipation and transformation of individuals and society through human action. Theory and practice form a single process, and philosophy is put to work to provide an analysis and critique of society, leading to social change. The political significance of the action of educating is brought to the fore, and education takes a central place as a means of promoting individual autonomy and addressing issues of prejudice ...

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