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On July 2, 1966, the U.S. Commissioner of Education, Harold Howe II, submitted to the president and the Congress a national report, Equality of Educational Opportunity, usually referred to as the Coleman Report after its lead researcher, the Johns Hopkins University sociologist James S. Coleman. The report was a response to a congressional mandate in Section 402 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:

The Commissioner shall conduct a survey and make a report to the President and the Congress, within two years of the enactment of this title, concerning the lack of availability of equal educational opportunities for individuals by reason of race, color, religion, or national origin in public educational institutions at all levels in the United States, its territories and possessions, and ...

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