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Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education is a 32-page report issued in 1918 by the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. The National Education Association formed the commission, chaired by Clarence D. Kingsley, amid concerns about demographic changes from immigration, urbanization, and industrialization, which resulted in a rapid increase in high school enrollment. The commission’s 28 members represented a range of education professionals. Serving as members at large, for example, were the sitting U.S. commissioner of education, three education professors, a philosopher, the education secretary of the YMCA, the principal of the Chicago Normal School, a university president, a high school principal, and a state high school supervisor. Their work was intended to guide the education of youth during a watershed period in American ...

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