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Education: Intellectual, Moral and Physical, by Herbert Spencer (1820–1903), originally appeared as four essays in various British quarterlies between 1854 and 1859. Reprinted as a book in 1864, Spencer’s essays on education also became very well-known on the Continent, and the book was the most widely read text on this subject in the United States during the second half of the 19th century. Spencer stressed the need to substitute a scientific education for a classical one and the importance of teaching children without the use of coercion and rote learning. His views drew on those of the Swiss educationist Johann Pestalozzi (pp. 115–129) and on the experience of his father William George Spencer, who was a scientific publicist and teacher.

The Educational Value of Knowledge

The foundations ...

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