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Probability and Significance Testing

Education researchers often want to make inferences from what they have observed to cases and situations they have not observed. In some cases, the inference is about whether the measurements made on a sample of people give results close to what would be obtained for the entire population if it had been measured. In other cases, the inference is from the size that has been detected in the difference in outcomes for two groups in an experiment (the effect size) and from the effect size that would be obtained if the experiment were repeated many times. There are two contending approaches to probability that can be brought to bear here.

The statistical procedure of significance testing, based on a frequentist conception of probability, can be used ...

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