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Modernization theory has occupied a central position in sociology and related social sciences. Modernization is the process exemplified by contemporary industrialized societies that are characterized by (a) a complex economy and division of labor, (b) the presence of mass communications, (c) both economic and cultural globalization, and (d) a decline in the role of local community together with a decline in the power of traditional social institutions such as social class, religion, and family. Such societies also are characterized by rapid decline in farming, the rise of the industrial proletariat and bourgeoisie, and later-occurring changes from a manufacturing to a service-based economy. Socioeconomic position within these societies becomes heavily influenced by educational attainment.

Modernization theory is not a theory in the sense that it consists of ...

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