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The idea of learning how to learn is quite old and can be traced back to the Socratic method of questioning; over the past four decades, though, this idea has been incorporated under the scientific term metacognition. This modern conceptualization is credited to the developmental psychologist John H. Flavell, the “father of the field,” and it has become one of the major foci of psychological research.

Today, metacognition is referred to in different disciplines, in different ways, and it is studied from a variety of perspectives. These include developmental psychology (e.g., theory of mind), experimental and cognitive psychology (e.g., metamemory), educational psychology (e.g., self-regulated learning), neuropsychology (e.g., executive functions and prefrontal brain areas), social cognition (e.g., human interactions), clinical psychology (e.g., reflection on thoughts and actions), ...

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