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Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871–1944) was a geographer, educator, and founder of a new religious movement in Japan. His first book, Jinsei chirigaku (The Geography of Human Life), was published in 1903, just months before the start of the Russo-Japanese War.

First as an elementary school teacher and later as a geography instructor at a teachers’ training school, he developed an awareness of the importance of geography in school education. He considered it important for students to directly observe the relationships between people’s lives and their environment in the local community. Furthermore, he emphasized the necessity to broaden students’ horizons—from the local community to the national state and to the world.

Although he saw value in human life arising from the interaction between man and nature, he rejected geographical ...

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