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Higher Education: Contemporary Controversies

Higher education comprises formal or institutionalized education, leading to the awarding of recognized qualifications beyond the level of secondary schooling. It is defined in a variety of ways in different nations; in some countries, including parts of Europe and Australia, “higher education” is confined to degree-granting programs normally of three full-time years or more in duration. However, in some other countries, such as the United States and Canada, subdegree programs of two full-time years are included, while in some jurisdictions, shorter programs are included. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, which publishes an annual series of comparative statistics on education, remakes the problem by focusing on “tertiary education” and dividing that category into degree and selected subdegree programs.

A related issue is the definition ...

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