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Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research: Campbell and Stanley

The American psychologists Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) and Julian C. Stanley (1918–2005) are widely considered pioneers in the study of educational research designs. Their work individually, together, and with colleagues has profoundly influenced the field of experimentation not only in education but also in social science research more broadly. In their 1963 monograph, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference, Campbell and Stanley provided a detailed specification of the conditions under which research studies could validly yield causal conclusions. Often referred to simply as “Campbell and Stanley,” this brief but classic work stands even today as the most oft-cited source for educational research studies that employ some form of experimental design. This entry describes the monograph’s methodological contribution and the Campbell and Stanley framework ...

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