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The term educational science is an umbrella term, used by educationists on the Continent, that covers research on education from many different paradigms. Following Thomas Kuhn’s introduction of the concept of the paradigm, which he originally applied to the natural sciences, it has gradually become increasingly common also in other branches of science to identify several paradigms, each with its own understanding of science and its own concepts and methods. Due to their differing conceptualizations of science, these paradigms cannot be reduced to each other without incurring substantial loss of elements each regarded as essential and distinctive. This has been evidenced by the controversies on positivism, hermeneutics, and systems theory in which the scientific possibilities and limits of each paradigm have been the subject ...

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