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Accountability, Types of

Accountability in public education has been at the center of policy reform since the 1983 report A Nation at Risk. Since then, the academic performance of public school students in the United States has slipped relative to student performance in other nations. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 sought to hold all schools accountable for student outcomes. Yet, despite several reform initiatives intended to improve student performance outcomes, the United States continues to lag behind many other developed countries on international tests. In December 2013, U.S. Education Secretary Arne Duncan lamented the performance of U.S. students on the Programme for International Student Assessment test in 2012. The Programme for International Student Assessment is an international comparison of student academic performance in core subject ...

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