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Validity is an overall judgment or criterion that is used to evaluate how well measures in an instrument or a test are used for the purpose of research or a test. In conducting a study, a researcher needs to determine research questions to answer and, then, ways in which to measure the key constructs that will enable these questions to be answered. In social science research, including research on the economics of education, a measure is a standard unit that is used to estimate the degree of something. Researchers draw conclusions on the basis of a research instrument that includes measures for concepts or variables. If the measures for concepts or variables are not appropriate, the conclusions from that research will not be valid. Therefore, ...

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