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School Boards, School Districts, and Collective Bargaining

As in any organization, school district personnel can be roughly categorized as either labor or management. Labor comprises teachers, nurses, librarians, guidance counselors, aides, bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and custodians; management, strictly speaking, is the school board, but in practice, it also includes district administrators such as the superintendent and executive cabinet members. (In this entry, the former category will be referred to collectively as “district employees” unless a particular type of employee is specified.)

District employees generally operate under a set of work rules that dictate wages, hours, duties, safety, grievance procedures, and other working conditions. (As described in this entry, which working conditions are governed by rules, and how those rules are determined, varies by district and state.) For teachers, these rules specify class ...

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