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Parental Involvement

While formal schooling undoubtedly plays a key role in shaping students’ lives, by the time they reach the age of 18, children have typically only spent 13% of their waking life at school. It is perhaps not surprising, therefore, that family characteristics are more predictive of students’ success in school than school characteristics. A wide body of literature, particularly in sociology and psychology, has examined the roles that parents play in shaping their children’s education.

The limited research in economics on parental involvement suggests that economists think of parental involvement as a part of the education production function, where direct inputs are provided by parents in an attempt to increase the achievement levels of their children. The Nobel Prize–winning economist Gary Becker has argued that ...

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