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Fixed-Effects Models

Much research on education examines whether an intervention or treatment causally affects educational outcomes. Experimental studies with random assignment to treatment or control groups are rare in education research but are more likely to demonstrate causality. More commonly used in education research are quasi-experimental studies without random assignment. These studies must overcome several threats to the internal validity of their conclusions. One of the major threats to internal validity of quasi-experimental designs is selection bias, defined as estimation error as a result of systematic differences in observed and unobserved characteristics between treatment and comparison units. Selection bias, if unaddressed, leads to the possibility that the difference in outcomes between treatment and comparison groups is caused by unobserved differences between the two groups rather than by ...

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