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  • In: Encyclopedia of Deception
  • Edited by: Timothy R. Levine
  • Subject:Interpersonal Relationships, Interpersonal Communication, Moral Development

Unlike his teacher Socrates, who condemns all lying and deceiving (unless his use of irony is considered deceptive, a conclusion resisted by scholars), and his student Aristotle, who says that all lying is base and blameworthy (although falsely modest self-deprecating lies ...

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