In the 1970s and into the 1980s, police leaders, scholars, and other stakeholders started to think more strategically and analytically about the policing process. A series of research and evaluation efforts within the United States suggested that random patrol, criminal investigations, and rapid response were not particularly effective policing methods or strategies. It seemed clear that a different approach was necessary, that community policing had promise, and that systematic problem solving needed to occur. Herman Goldstein first published an article in 1979 that advocated for a problem-oriented policing approach. What followed was a series of early experiments in a variety of U.S. cities that suggested that a problem-oriented policing approach could yield benefits in crime prevention, community safety, and overall police effectiveness.

Since that time, many ...

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