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In efforts to protect the health and well-being of their citizens, all 50 states of the United States have enacted compulsory vaccination requirements as a condition for entry into public and private schools. These requirements are enacted as statutes, and in most cases, state legislatures delegate to their health departments the responsibility to implement and oversee the implementation of compulsory vaccination requirements. In addition, states are empowered, either by statute, regulation, or judicial interpretation, to exclude children who have not been vaccinated from school attendance and, if children lack valid exemptions, may initiate truancy or other proceedings against them and/or their parents. For various reasons, the enactment and enforcement of these requirements has resulted in litigation against the states and/or school boards by parents on ...

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