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The decade of the 1960s witnessed a broad congressional attack on discrimination in American society. Among targeted areas were housing, voting, education, and employment. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the first comprehensive federal employment discrimination statute, has provided an effective tool for litigants to challenge discrimination in the workplace and has altered employment practices in both public school and higher education in the United States. Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, and sex. In addition to basic hiring, dismissal, promotion, and demotion decisions, it extends to such wide-ranging employment issues as sexual harassment, pregnancy and maternity leave benefits, religious leave to observe one's religious holy days, and retaliation for exercising one's rights under Title VII. ...

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