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Generally, high-stakes tests are any measures whereby the results have important consequences for test takers and/or their schools. The prevalence of high-stakes tests has greatly increased since they were first used on a large scale during World War I to assign incoming soldiers to their duties. During the 1950s, colleges began widely using the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) as an admissions test, a trend that currently leads almost all college-bound students to take it or other standardized measures, such as the American College Testing (ACT) examination. In addition, many states have recently developed high school exit examinations that prospective graduates must pass in order to receive their diplomas. Tests of this type are given in 22 states, in which 65% of the nation's student ...

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