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The term open shop refers to a business or organization wherein employees are not required to become union members as a precondition of employment. An open shop can be distinguished from a closed shop,

which refers to a business or organization wherein union membership is a precondition of employment. Historically, an open shop was a slogan adopted by American employees during the early 20th century as a means of attempting to drive unions out of the construction industry. Under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), open shops are deemed legal labor practices in the United States.

The passage of the Taft-Hartley Labor Act in 1947 officially declared closed shops illegal throughout the United States. The Taft-Hartley Labor Act specifically gave states the legal authority to create “right-to-work” ...

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