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At issue in Milliken v. Bradley, I, II (191 A, 1977) was the implementation of school desegregation plans for the city of Detroit. The significance of the U.S. Supreme Court's rulings in Milliken I and II was that the plans involved a school system that was seeking to remedy an educational system that operated under de jure, as opposed to de facto, segregation, the usual condition in northern cities.

Background

School desegregation has been the subject of judicial scrutiny for over a century. The challenge of maintaining a diverse student body within each school building is complicated by various legal, social, political, and educational contexts. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the Court revisited the previously held separate-but-equal doctrine, finding that the separation ...

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