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During the collective bargaining process, when parties fail to reach agreements about the terms and conditions of employment, either side can typically make it known that they have reached an impasse, signaling that they are unable to resolve their differences on their own. When collective bargaining negotiations reach an impasse, there are three primary methods used to facilitate the resolution of disagreements. These formal methods of dispute negotiation include mediation, fact-finding, and arbitration. All three methods of dispute negotiation, described in this entry, are typically mandated by state statute.

Mediation

The formal grievance resolution process of mediation involves the use of neutral third-party mediators who work closely with the parties in order to facilitate an agreement. Individual mediators are usually chosen either by state labor relations boards ...

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