A gang, essentially, is a group of two or more people whose primary purposes include the commission of illegal and/or violent acts, usually designed to mark territory and preserve a sense of belonging and protection in a geographical area. Gangs and gang violence pervade both schools and communities as a whole. No community, whether urban, suburban, or rural, is immune from the effects of gang violence. Gang activity is often associated with areas that also experience disruptions in families, high poverty, school overcrowding, low student self-esteem, teacher apathy, low cultural and ethnic understanding on the part of educators, and continued race discrimination in schools.

From the schools' perspective, combating gang presence is a matter of strong policy and practice, usually through conduct and discipline measures like ...

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