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Educational institutions can be either the victims of fraud or, through their administration or governing boards, the perpetrators of fraud. When institutions are the victims, fraud may stem from the actions of employees, students, or contractors. Common types of fraud against institutions include unauthorized spending and the falsification of credentials or other documents. The penalties to follow findings of such fraud may include dismissal, suspension, or demotion of employees; criminal prosecution; voiding or rejecting renewal of credentials; and suspension of agency contracts.

When institutions are the perpetrators, fraud actions may arise within a variety of contexts. One notable area is fraudulent conduct by private institutions in order to enroll students. In this regard, the California legislature has noted that “Students have been induced to enroll… through ...

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