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According to a time honored but naive notion, educational policies are fashioned by local school boards, operating independently in the thousands of school districts throughout America. This notion is based on the folklore of local control. (Fischer, 1982, p. 56)

From the first federal land ordinances of the 1780s through major judicial decisions like Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) and George W. Bush's 2001 promise to leave no child behind, the federal government has intervened in state and local educational affairs by outlining and implementing policies, programs, and laws that have significantly impacted the landscape of education in America. Moreover, while many have debated the amount of control the federal government should have in the education of the nation's children, its role has ...

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