Ethnography is a term that describes a broad range of research activities, including both the process of intensive field research and the textual product representing the results. Although scholars and practitioners debate the nuances of what constitutes the method of ethnography, a hallmark of ethnographic research is long-term fieldwork within a particular environment, setting, or group of people. Ethnography has its roots in cultural anthropology and sociology but is now widely used in many areas of social science, including education.

People frequently equate ethnography with qualitative research. However, not all qualitative research is considered ethnographic. Furthermore, although ethnographers rely heavily on qualitative techniques, they incorporate a wide range of information in their work, including numeric data. This entry discusses unique aspects of ethnography, as well as ...

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