Perhaps the most recognized type of significance testing is statistical significance. The concept of significance dates back to 1710, when John Arbuthnot, an English physician, published his statistical analysis. Statistical significance tests point to the probability of obtained sample results that deviate from the population specified by the null hypothesis, in a particular sample size. A null hypothesis is the hypothesis that is to be tested. It is important to clarify that statistical significance tests do not evaluate the probability that the sample results represent the population. In actuality, statistical significance tests work on the assumption that the null hypothesis describes the population and then test the sample's probability.


Statistical significance testing may be used when working with a random sample from a population, or a ...

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