The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) is a teaching method designed by Fred S. Keller and J. Gilmour Sherman from Columbia University. It focuses on mastery of knowledge or skills, as reflected in examination performance, and is implemented typically at the college level, although reports of high school and upper elementary implementation exist. Students must have successful reading, writing, and study skills to profit from PSI. Inspection of journals and magazines devoted to teaching methods in various disciplines indicates that PSI courses have been offered in more than 50 disciplines, including psychology, engineering, oceanography, English, sociology, biology, physics, history, and philosophy. PSI is derived from principles of behavior analysis, and has five distinguishing features. This entry describes those features and the outcomes of PSI research.

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