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Field Independence–Field Dependence

Field independence–field dependence (FI/D) is a dimension of cognitive style that affects the degree to which individuals rely on their own internal frames of reference in perception and performance of cognitive and social tasks. The degree of reliance on internal or external referents, in turn, affects other cognitive and social domains of behavior. The result is the portrait of a field independent person who is perceptually and cognitively analytic—able to see the trees in the forest. The same person is socially introverted, thinking his or her own thoughts rather than engaging with others. The field dependent individual perceives and thinks more holistically and can even be overwhelmed by extensive data in the field—unable to engage selective attention without help. The field dependent person relies on ...

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