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Explicit Memory

Explicit memory refers to the consciously mediated, deliberate attempt to retrieve a memory from the past. Explicit memory is critically important in educational psychology because the most conceptual learning by students and testing of knowledge by teachers engage explicit memory encoding and retrieval processes. In this entry, the major factors influencing explicit memory that are educationally relevant are reviewed, followed by a description of the educational implications of explicit memory processes.

Factors Affecting Explicit Memory

Explicit memory is generally measured by one of two types of memory tasks: recognition or recall. Common classroom recognition tasks are multiple-choice and true-false questions; common classroom recall tasks are fill-in-the-blank questions and essays. In general, both recognition and recall are enhanced more by encoding processes that focus on concepts and meaning ...

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