Morphine is a potent narcotic drug that directly affects the central nervous system. It is one of the main alkaloids extracted from the opium poppy. Morphine sulfate, the most common form of the drug, occurs as a white, feathery, crystalline powder. It has a pH around 7.4, which makes it highly water soluble, while pure morphine is not very water soluble. Morphine should be stored at room temperature, away from heat, light, and moisture. It is an effective pain reliever, cough suppressant, and anti-diarrheic, while it also produces euphoria. Tolerance and both physical and psychological dependence can develop rapidly with use.

Morphine was first isolated from opium around 1805 by Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner, a German pharmacist, who identified the organic alkaloid and named it “morphium” ...

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