There are a number of different types of drug treatment. The following six are covered in this entry: brief interventions and motivational interviewing; withdrawal treatment (detoxification); counseling, relapse prevention, psychotherapy and behavior-change interventions; therapeutic communities; maintenance pharmacotherapies; and self-help.

Before describing these different types of treatment and the evidence for their effectiveness, it is important to note that there are a number of different goals of drug treatment. The most obvious goal of drug treatment is to (1) reduce or cease drug use. However, additionally, drug treatment aims to (2) improve physical health, (3) improve psychological health, (4) improve social and occupational functioning, (5) prevent death, and (6) reduce criminal activity. The degree to which different treatment types achieve these goals varies depending on the treatment. ...

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