Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX), codified at 20 U.S.C. sections 1681–1688, provides that “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” The law closed a perceived gap in protection for faculty members under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), which prohibits sex-based employment discrimination, but also banned any sex-based discrimination at all educational institutions that receive federal funding.

History of Title IX

Under the Spending Clause of the U.S. Constitution, which gives the federal government power to impose taxes, Title IX conditions the government's provision of federal funding ...

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