Since 1975, the teaching and testing of students with special needs have undergone numerous changes based on legal and social changes in U.S. education. With each new piece of federal legislation, there have been modifications to the guidelines and procedures for teaching and testing students with special needs. The implementation of each piece of federal legislation has been challenging and controversial at the federal, state, and local levels.

Despite challenges and controversies, state boards of education, school districts, and local public schools are now expected to implement federal special education legislation in order to comply with the law; failure to abide by the law can result in loss of federal funding, monetary fines, and risk of litigation. Parents and advocates of children with disabilities have worked ...

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