Public opinions about differences between the sexes and/or genders have long shaped educational policy. Sex is typically defined as the biological state of being male or female, whereas gender refers to the socially constructed categories of femininity and masculinity. This entry describes the current state of research on gender differences (and similarities), provides background on how studies of gender differences are typically conducted, and outlines new approaches and theoretical explanations that currently shape major research in this area. Educators need to have an accurate understanding of gender and sex differences to help both male and female students to realize their gifts and talents. Gender misconceptions and stereotypes limit the academic and social potentials of female and male students.

Studying Gender Differences

The magnitude of gender differences is ...

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