Taken over by the United States through the Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War in 1898, Puerto Rico is officially a Commonwealth of the United States. Nevertheless, this status has been hotly debated for more than 100 years by residents of the island who regularly go to the polls to vote for candidates advocating for independence, the status quo, or U.S. statehood. This colonial relationship has an impact on the migration and on the education of Puerto Ricans in the United States. In this entry, a brief history of the education of Puerto Ricans in U.S. schools, the continuing dilemmas they face, and future prospects are discussed.


In 2011, there were approximately 4.2 million Puerto Ricans in the United States, and 3.8 million in ...

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