In almost every European country, one or more national or regional minority groups can be found. Their members are nationals of the respective states, but they differ from the majority populations in regard to their distinctive ethnic, cultural, linguistic, or religious characteristics. Contrary to educational provisions for more recent migrant populations, the main goal of schooling of these established minorities is to offer separate forms of education in order to strengthen group identities and to foster preservation of the group members' traditions, culture, language, and religion. With the exception of constitutional provisions, which grant minority groups specific educational rights in some countries or regions thereof (e.g., in Austria or Spain), there is no general obligation that states provide public funding for separate minority schools, colleges, ...

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